The Bordeaux Pilgrim (c. 333 C.E.)

Translation by Andrew S. Jacobs

This anonymous travelogue recounts a journey undertaken in the year 333, according to the pair of consuls mentioned in the text. Conventionally known as the Itinerarium Burdigalense, or "Bordeaux Pilgrim," for the text's point of departure (the trip ends in Milan), this text is also generally considered the first Christian pilgrimage account. It is something of a literary hybrid. The majority of the text is a set of travel instructions listing changing-stations (mutationes) and rest-stops (mansiones); essentially, a textual map, of which other ancient examples survive, such as the possibly third-century Itinerarium Antonini. The core of the text, however, during the traveler's time in the holy land, reads more like a travel account, such as Pausanias's Description of Greece.

You can view a visual representation of the pilgrim's journey here.

I have translated into English very common place-names (like Rome or Milan), and those that seem to be nicknames (like Twelfth or Three-Horn Camp); the rest I have left as the traveler recorded them. It doesn't seem that he stopped at all of these places, but merely noted them down in passing on his route.

The text below is translated from P. Geyer and O. Cuntz, eds., Itineraria et alia geographica, Corpus Christianiorum series Latina 175 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1965), 1-26. You may link to, share, or reproduce this translation with attribution. You may not make any commercial use of this work. Any suggestions for corrections or additions to the text or annotations are more than welcome: andrew [at] andrewjacobs [dot] org.

An itinerary from Bordeaux to Jerusalem, and from Heraclea through Aulon, and through the city of Rome until Milan, in this way:

The city of Bordeaux, where the Garonne River is, through which the wide sea ebbs and flows for one hundred leagues, more or less;

change at Stomata, 7 leagues Uniquely in this first part of his journey, the traveler measures distance in "leagues" (leugae) rather than "miles" (milia)

change at Sirio, 9 leagues;

city of Vasates, 9 leagues;

change at Three Trees, 5 leagues;

change at Oscineium, 5 leagues;

change at Scittium, 8 leagues;

cities [sic] of Elusa, 8 leagues;

change at Vaneisa, 12 leagues;

city of Auscius, 8 leagues;

change at the Sixth, 6 leagues;

change at Hungunverrum, 7 leagues;

change at Buccones, 7 leagues;

change at Jupiter, 7 leagues;

city of Tolouse, 7 leagues;

change at the Ninth, 9 miles;

change at the Twentieth, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Elusio, 9 miles;

change at Sostomagum, 9 miles;

town of Hebromagum, 10 miles;

change at Cedars, 6 miles;

fortress of Carcassone, 8 miles;

change at the Thirtieth, 8 miles;

change at Hosuerbae, 15 miles;

city of Narbonne, 15 miles;

city of Beterrae, 16 miles;

rest-stop at Cessaro, 12 miles;

change at the the Forum of Domitum, 18 miles;

change at Sostantio, 15 miles;

change at Ambrosum, 15 miles;

city of Nemauso, 15 miles;

change at the Aerarius Bridge, 12 miles;

city of Arles, 8 miles.

From Bordeaux until Arles: 372 miles, 30 changes, 11 rest-stops.

Change at Arnago, 8 miles;

change at Bellintum, 10 miles;

city of Avignon, 5 miles;

change at Cypressetum, 5 miles;

city of Orange, 15 miles;

change at Letocum, 8 miles;

change at Novem Crares, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Acunum, 10 miles;

change at Bantianes, 12 miles;

change at Umbennum, 12 miles;

city of Valence, 9 miles;

change at Cerebelliaca, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Augusta, 10 miles;

change at Darentiaca, 12 miles;

city of Our Lady of Vocontiorum, 16 miles;

rest-stop at Lucum, 12 miles;

change at Vologates, 9 miles.

There the ascent of Mount Gaura.

Change at Cambonum, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Mount Seleucus, 7 miles;

change at Davianum, 8 miles;

change at the border, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Vappincum, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Catorigae, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Ebredunum, 16 miles.

There begin the Cottian Alps.

Change at Rama, 17 miles;

rest-stop at Byrigans, 17 miles.

There you climb Matrona.

Change at Gesdaone, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Mars, 9 miles;

city of Segussione, 16 miles.

There Italy begins.

Change at the Twelfth, 12 miles;

rest-stop at the borders, 12 miles;

change at the Eighth, 8 miles;

city of Turin, 8 miles;

change at the Tenth, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Quadratae, 12 miles;

change at Cestus, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Rigomagum, 8 miles;

change at the Midlands, 10 miles;

change at Cottiae, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Laumellum, 12 miles;

change at Duriae, 8 miles;

city of Ticinum, 12 miles;

change at the Tenth, 10 miles;

City of Milan, 10 miles;

[rest-stop at Cold Rivers, 12 miles]

From Arles to Milan it was 475 miles, 73 changes, 22 rest-stops.

Change at Argentum, 10 mile;

change at Aureolus Bridge, 10 miles,

city of Bergamum, 13 miles;

change at Tellegatum, 12 miles;

change at Tetellus, 10 miles;

city of Brixa, 10 miles;

rest-stop at the Bend, 11 miles;

change at Beneventum, 10 miles;

city of Verona, 10 miles;

change at Cadianum, 10 miles;

change at Aureos, 10 miles;

city of Vincentia, 11 miles;

change at the border, 11 miles;

city of Patavum, 10 miles;

change at the Twelfth, 12 miles;

change at Nonus, 11 miles;

city of Altinum, 9 miles;

change at Sanae, 10 miles;

city of Concordium, 9 miles;

change at Apicilia, 9 miles;

change at the Eleventh, 11 miles;

city of Aquileia, 11 miles.

From Milan until Aquileia it's 251 miles, 24 changes, 9 rest-stops.

Change at the Eleventh, 11 miles;

change at Fornolus, 12 miles;

change at the Camps, 12 miles.

There the Julian Alps rise.

To Prius on the summit of the alps, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Longaticum, 10 miles;

change at the Ninth, 9 miles;

city of Emona, 14 miles;

change at the Fourteenth, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Hadrantum, 13 miles.

The limits of Italy and Norcum.

Change at the Midlands, 13 miles;

city of Celeia, 13 miles;

change at Lotodi, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Ragindonum, 12 miles;

change at Pultovia, 12 miles;

cit of Poetovionum, 12 miles.

You cross the bridge, you enter Lower Pannonia.

Change at Ramista, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Living Waters, 9 miles;

change at Populi, 10 miles;

city of Jovia, 9 miles;

change at Sunista, 9 miles;

change at Peritur, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Lentolae, 12 miles;

change at Cardonum, 10 miles;

change at Cocconae, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Serota, 10 miles;

change at Bolentia, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Maurianae, 9 miles.

You enter Upper Pannonia.

Change at Serena, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Vereae, 10 miles;

change at Jovalia, 8 miles;

change at Mersella, 8 miles;

city of Mursa, 10 miles;

change at Leutvoanum, 12 miles;

city of Cibali, 12 miles;

change at Caelenum, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Ulmo, 11 miles;

change at Spanetum, 10 miles;

change at Vedulia, 8 miles;

city of Sirmium, 8 miles.

From Aquileia to Sirmium it's 412 miles, 17 rest-stops, 38 changes.

Change at Fossae, 9 miles;

city of Bassianae, 10 miles;

change at Novicianum, 12 miles;

change at Altinum, 11 miles;

city of Singidunum, 7 miles.

Borders of Pannonia and Moesia.

Change at the Sixth, 6 miles;

change at Three-Horn Camp, 6 miles;

change at the Sixth Milestone, 6 miles;

city of Gold Mountain, 6 miles;

change at Vingeium, 6 miles;

city of Margum, 9 miles;

city of Viminacium, 10 miles.

Where Diocletian killed Carinus. Carinus ruled briefly as emperor from 283-285 before being defeated in battle by Diocletian, who had served as head body-guard to Carinus's co-emperor and brother Numerian. (This is one of the few bits of local "color" the traveler provides outside of the holy land.)

Change at the Ninth, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Munecipium, 9 miles;

change at Jovis Pagus, 10 miles;

change at Baum, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Idomum, 9 miles;

change at Octavum, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Horomagum, 8 miles;

The borders of Moesia and Asia.

Change at Sarmati, 12 miles;

change at Camanitae, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Ipompei, 9 miles;

change at Rampiana, 12 miles;

city of Naisso, 12 miles;

change at Redices, 12 miles;

change at Ulmo, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Romansianum, 9 miles;

change at Latina, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Turres, 9 miles,

change at Translitae, 12 miles;

change at Ballanstrum, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Meldia, 9 miles;

change at Scretisca, 12 miles;

city of Serdica, 11 miles.

From Sirmium to Serdica it's 314 miles, 24 changes, 13 rest-stops.

Change at Extuomnum, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Buragara, 9 miles;

change at Separata, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Hilicum, 10 miles;

change at Soneium, 9 miles.

Borders of Dacia and Thrace.

Change at Ucasum Bridge, 6 miles;

rest-stop at Good Rest-Stop, 6 miles;

change at Alusorum, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Basaparum, 12 miles;

change at Tugugerum, 9 miles;

city of Filopopulum, 12 miles;

change at Sernota, 10 miles;

change at Paramuole, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Cillium, 12 miles;

change at Carassura, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Arzum, 11 miles;

change at Pala, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Castozorba, 11 miles;

change at Rhames, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Burdistum, 11 miles;

change at Daphaba, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Nicaea, 8 miles;

change at Tarpodizum, 10 miles;

change at Urisium, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Virgolae, 7 miles;

change at Narcum, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Drizuparum, 9 miles;

change at Tipsum, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Tunorullum, 8 miles;

change at Beodizum, 8 miles;

city of Heraclea, 9 miles;

change at Baunnum, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Salambria, 10 miles;

change at Callum, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Atyrum, 10 miles;

imperial rest-stop, 12 miles.

City of Constantinople, 12 miles.

From Serdica to Constantinople it's 414 miles, 12 changes, 20 rest-stops.

The whole total from Bordeaux to Constantinople is 2221 miles, 230 changes, 112 rest-stops.

And we traveled in the consulate of Dalmatius and Zenophilus on the third of the Kalends of June [May 30, 333] and we came back to Constantinople on the seventh of the Kalends of January [December 25] in the above-mentioned consulate. The traveler spent less than six months traveling in the holy land.

From Constantinople you cross a bridge, you come to Chalcedon, you travel in the province of Bithynia.

Change at Narses, 7 1/2 miles;

rest-stop at Pandicium, 7 1/2 miles;

change at Pontamus, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Libissa, 9 miles.

There lies King Hannibal, who was of the Africans. Apparently several centuries after his death (c. 182 BCE) the grave of one of Rome's archnemeses was still being pointed out to travelers.

Change at Brunga, 12 miles;

city of Nicomedia, 9 miles.

From Constantinople to Nicomedia it's 58 miles, 7 changes, 3 rest-stops.

Change at Hyribolum, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Libus, 11 miles;

change at Liada, 12 miles;

city of Nicaea, 9 miles;

change at Schinae, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Midum, 7 miles;

change at Chogaeum, 6 miles;

change at Thateso, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Tutaium, 9 miles;

change at Protunicum, 11 miles;

change at Artemae, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Dablae, 6 miles;

change at Ceretae, 6 miles.

The border of Bithynia and Galatia.

Change at the border, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Dadastanum, 6 miles;

change across the mountain, 6 miles;

change at the Miles, 11 miles;

city of Juliopolis, 8 miles;

change at the Hicron River, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Agannia, 11 miles;

change at Petrobroges, 6 miles;

rest-stop at Mnizos, 10 miles;

change at Prasmon, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Malogordis, 9 miles;

change at Lake Cenaxes, 13 miles;

city of Ancyra in Galatia, 13 miles.

From Nicomedia to Ancyra in Galatia it's 258 miles, 26 changes, 12 rest-stops.

Change at Delemna, 10 miles;

rest-stop at Curveunta, 11 miles;

change at Rosolodaicum, 12 miles;

change at Aliassum, 13 miles;

city of Aspona, 18 miles;

change at Galeum, 13 miles;

change at Andrapum, 9 miles.

Border of Galatia and Cappdocia.

Rest-stop at Parnassum, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Iogolum, 16 miles;

rest-stop at Nitalis, 18 miles;

change at Argustanum, 13 miles;

city of Colonia, 15 miles;

change at Momoasson, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Anathiangum, 13 miles;

change at Chusa, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Sasima, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Andavilae, 16 miles.

There is the villa of Pammatus, where the curule horses come from. Equi curules were horses used by public magistrates in official processions; it's not clear if this "villa" was a horse-farm or a grooming stable, or both. It's also unclear if such a notation reflects the interests of the traveler or his guides.

City of Tyana, 18 miles.

There was Apollonius the Magician. Apollonius of Tyana was a renowned wonder-worker of the second-century whose life was popularized by the sophist Philostratus in his Life of Apollonius more than a century after his death.

City of Faustinopolis, 12 miles;

change at Caena, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Oppodandum, 12 miles;

change at Pilae, 14 miles.

Border of Cappadocia and Cilicia.

Rest-stop at Mansucrinae, 12 miles;

city of Tarsus 12 miles.

There was the Apostle Paul. The first explicitly Christian reference, although it's not clear if at this time any monument to Paul existed in his purported city of origin.

From Ancyra in Galatia until Tarsus it's 344 miles, 35 changes, 18 rest-stops.

Change at Pargae, 13 miles;

city of Adana, 14 miles;

city of Mansista, 18 miles;

charge at Tardequeium, 15 miles;

rest-stop at Catavolum, 16 miles;

rest-stop at Baia, 17 miles;

rest-stop at Scabian Alexandria, 16 miles;

change at Pictanus, 9 miles.

The border of Cilicia and Syria.

Rest-stop at Pagrii, 8 miles;

city of Antioch, 16 miles.

From Tarsus in Cilicia to Antioch it's 141 miles, 10 changes, 7 rest-stops.

To the Palace of Daphne, 5 miles;

change at Hysdatum, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Platanus, 11 miles;

change at Baccaiae, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Catelae, 16 miles;

city of Ladica, 16 miles;

city of Gabala, 14 miles;

city of Balaneae, 13 miles.

Border of Syria Coelis and Phoenicia.

Change at Maraccae, 10 mils;

rest-stop at Antaradus, 16 miles.

There is city in the sea is 2 miles from the shore.

Change at Spiclis, 12 miles;

change at Basiliscum, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Acre, 8 miles;

change at Bruttum, 4 miles;

change at Alcobilum, 12 miles;

change at Heldua, 12 miles;

city of Biritum, 12 miles;

change at Parphirion, 8 miles;

City of Sidon, 8 miles;

there is Zarephta, 8 miles.

There Elijah went up to the widow and sought food from her (1 Kings 17:1-16). The first reference to a biblical event.

Change at the Ninth, 4 miles;

city of Tyre, 12 miles.

From Antioch to Tyre it's 174 miles, 20 changes, 11 rest-stops.

Change at Alexandroschenum, 12 miles;

change at Ecdeppa, 12 miles;

city of Ptolemais, 8 miles;

change at Calamon, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Sicaminos, 3 miles.

There is Mount Carmel, where Elijah made a sacrifice (1 Kings 18:19-40).

Change at Certha, 8 miles.

The border of the edge of Syria and Palestine.

City of Caesarea of Palestine, that is Judea, 8 miles.

From Tyre to Caesarea of Palestine it's 73 miles, 2 changes, 3 rest-stops.

There is the bath of Cornelius the centurion, who gave many alms (Acts 10).

There at the third milestone is Mount Sina, where there is a pool where, when a woman bathes in it, she becomes pregnant. Presumably, the traveler means she becomes able to become pregnant.

City of Maximianopolis, 17 miles;

city of Isdradela, 10 miles.

There King Ahab rules and Elijah prophesied; there is the field where David killed Goliath;

City of Scythopolis, 12 miles;

Asher, where the villa of Job was, 16 miles;

city of Neapolis, 15 miles.

There is Mount Gerizim: the Samaritans say that Abraham offered sacrifice there, and the number of steps is 1300 which go up to the mount's summit.

There at the foot of the mountain is a place whose name is Shechem.

There is a tomb where Joseph is buried in a villa, which his father Jacob gave to him.

There Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, was seized by the sons of the Amorites.

A mile from there is a place by the name of Sychar, where the Samaritan woman went down to that place where Jacob had dug a well, and from her he begged water, and our Lord Jesus Christ spoke with her; there are plane-trees which Jacob planted, and a bath which is bathed with water from it.

Going 28 miles from there to Jerusalem in the left part is a village which is called Bethar.

A mile from there is the place where Jacob, when he came into Mesopotamia, slept, and there is an almond tree, and he had a vision and an angel struggled with him.

There was King Jeroboam, to whom a prophet was sent, and he was converted to God on High; and the command to the prophet was that he should eat with the false prophet whom the King had with him, and since he was led astray by the false prophet and ate with him, as he returned a lion met the prophet in the road and killed him.

There is Jerusalem, 12 miles.

From Caesarea in Palestine to Jerusalem it's 116 miles, 3 rest-stop, 4 changes.

There are in Jerusalem two big pools to the side of the Temple, that is, one to the right, another to the left, which Solomon made, but inside the cite there are two twin pools with five porches, which are called Bethsaida.

There those who have been sick for many years have been healed.

These pools have water which becomes scarlet when disturbed.

There is a crypt there where Solomon tortured demons.

There is the corner of the highest tower, where the Lord went up and he said to the one who was tempting him, and the Lord said to him: Do not tempt the Lord your God, but him only should you serve (Matt 4:7, 10).

There is the cornerstone about which it was said: stone, which the builders reproved, this has been made the head stone (Matt 21:42).

And under the pinnacle of the tower there are many chambers, where Solomon had his palace.

There is also the chamber in which he sat and wrote about wisdom; but the chamber itself has a single stone for its roof.

There are also very great pools of water underground and a great pool built with work.

And in that building where the Temple was, which Solomon built, in the marble before the altar is the blood of Zechariah which you would say was shed today; indeed, there appear to be traces of the soldier's boots, who killed him, throughout the area, such that you would think they had been pressed in wax.

There are two status of Hadrian; not far from the statues is a pierced stone to the Jews comes every year and they anoint it and they lament with a groan and they tear their garments and then they withdraw.

There is the house of Hezekiah, King of Judah.

On the road out of Jerusalem, as you go up Zion, on the left hand side and down in the valley next to the wall there is a pool, which is called Siloam; it has four porches; and another big pool outside

This fountain runs for six days and nights, and on the seventh day it rests; it does not run for a whole day and night.

On the same side you go up Zion and there is where the house of Caiaphas the high priest was, and the pillar is right there on which they fell upon Christ with whips.

Within, that is inside the wall, appears the place where David had his palace.

And the seven synagogues which were there, only one remains but the rest are plowed over and seeded, just as Isaiah the prophet said.

There as you go outside the wall of Zion, going along to the Neapolitan gate on the right hand side, down in the valley there are walls where the house was, or the praetorium, of Pontius Pilate; there the Lord was tried, before he suffered.

On the left hand side is the little hill of Golgotha, where the Lord was crucified.

About a stone's throw from there is the crypt where his body was buried and on the third day he rose; at the same place, on the command of the Emperor Constantine, a basilica was built (that is, a church [dominicum]), of marvelous beauty, having reservoirs on the side, where water is brought up, and a bath behind in which infants are bathed. Presumably, the traveler does not mean literal infants being washed, but new Christians being baptized.

Again going along to Jerusalem to the gate, which is toward the east, as you go up onto the Mount of Olives, there is a valley which is called Jehosaphat, on the left hand side, where there are vines, and there is also a rock where Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ; but on the right-hand side there is a palm tree, whose branches children carried and laid down when Christ was coming.

Not far from there, about a stone's throw, were built two monumental tombs of marvelous beauty; in one was laid Isaiah the prophet, which is really a slab, and in another Hezekiah, King of the Jews.

From there you go up into the Mount of Olives, where the Lord taught his apostles before his passion; there a basilica was made on Constantine's command.

Not far off from there is a little hill, where the Lord went up to pray and there appeared there Moses and Elijah, when he brought Peter and John with him.

From there to the east about mile and a half is a villa which is called Bethany; there is the crypt where Lazarus was laid, whom the Lord raised.

From Jerusalem to Jericho is 17 miles.

Coming down the mountain on the right hand side behind the tomb is a sycamore tree, in which Zacchaeus went up and he saw Christ.

From the city, about a mile and a half off, there is the fountain of the prophet Elisha.

Before, if any woman drank from that water, she would not have children.

Alongside is the clay vessel of Elisha, he put salt in it and he came and he stood above the water and he said: Thus said the Lord, he has cleaned these waters (2 Kings 2:21).

If some woman drinks from it, she has sons.

Above the fountain as you go along is the house of Rahab the prostitute, to whom the explorers went in and she hid them, when Jericho was overturned, she alone escaped.

There was the city of Jericho was, around whose walls the Israelites went with the Ark of the Covenant and the walls fell down.

From that nothing is left of the place, where the Ark of the Covenant was, but twelve stones which the Israelites carried across the Jordan.

There also Joshua son of Nun circumcised the Israelites. And he buried their foreskins.

From Jericho to the Dead Sea, nine miles.

Its water is extremely bitter, where in the whole there is no kind of fish and no vessel of any kind, and if someone casts himself in so he might swim the very water turns him over.

From there to the Jordan, where the Lord was baptized by John, five miles.

There is a place above the river, a little hill in that shore, where Elijah was seized up into heaven.

From Jerusalem as you go to Bethlehem, four miles above the road on the right hand side is the tomb where Rachel, wife of Jacob, is buried.

From there two miles on the left-hand side is Bethlehem, where the Lord Jesus Christ was born; there a basilica was made by Constantine's command.

Not far from there is Ezekiel's tomb.

Asaph, Job and Jesse, David, Solomon, and it has on that crypt going down the side their names written in Hebrew letters.

From Bethazor 14 miles, where there is a fountain in which Philip baptized the eunuch.

From there to Terebinth 8 miles, where Abraham lives and he dug a well under the terebinth tree and spoke with angels and ate food; there a basilica has been made by Constantine's command, of marvelous beauty.

From Terebinth to Hebron 2 miles, where there is a memorial in a square of stones of marvelous beauty, in which are buried Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca, and Leah.

Back from Jerusalem thus:

City of Nicopolis, 22 miles;

city of Lydda, 10 miles;

change at Antipatris, 10 miles;

change at Betthar, 10 miles;

city of Caesarea, 16 miles.

The sum total of the route from Constantinople to Jerusalem 1164 miles, 69 changes, 58 rest-stops.

Again through Nicopolis to Caesarea 73 miles, 5 changes, 3 rest-stops.

Again from Heracles through Macedonia:

Change at Aerea, 16 miles;

rest-stop at Registum, 12 miles;

change at Bedizum, 12 miles;

city of Apres, 12 miles;

change at Zesutera, 12 miles.

Border of Europe and Rhodopea.

Rest-stop at Sirogellae, 10 miles;

change at Drippa, 14 miles;

rest-stop at Gipsila, 12 miles;

change at Demae, 12 miles;

city of Trajanopolis, 13 miles;

change at Unimpara, 8 miles;

change at Saleis, 7 miles;

change at Melalicum, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Berozicha, 15 miles;

change at Breierophara, 10 miles;

city of Maximianopolis, 10 miles;

change at Stabulodium, 12 miles;

change at Rumbodona, 10 miles;

city of Epyrus, 10 miles;

change at Purdes, 8 miles.

At the border of Rhodopea and Macedonia.

Rest-stop at Hercontroma, 9 miles;

change at Neapolis, 9 miles;

city of Philippi, 10 miles, where Paul and Silas were in jail.

Change at the Twelfth, 12 miles;

change at Domeri, 7 miles;

city of Amphipolis, 13 miles;

change at Pennana, 10 miles;

change at Peripidis, 10 miles.

The poet Euripides is buried there. Some modern interpreters read peripidis as either the traveler's misunderstanding or a copyist's mistranscription for euripidis, that is, a mutatio named for the poet's burial site, which the late fourth-century historian Ammianus Marcellinus puts in the vicinity at Arethusa (Res gestae 27.4.8).

Rest-stop at Appollonia [sic] 11 miles;

change at Heralceustes, 11 miles;

change at Two Goddesses, 14 miles;

city of Thessalonica, 13 miles;

change at the Tenth, 10 miles;

change at Gephira, 10 miles;

City of Pella, where Alexander the Great the Macedonian was, Specifically, where Alexander the Great was born. 10 miles.

Change at Scurium, 15 miles;

city of Edessa, 15 miles;

change at the Twelfth, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Cellae, 16 miles;

change at Grandis, 14 miles;

change at Melitonus, 14 miles;

city of Heraclea, 13 miles;

change at Parambole, 12 miles;

change at Brucida, 19 miles.

Border of Macedonia and Epirus.

City of Cledum, 13 miles;

change at Patras, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Claudanon, 4 miles;

change at Tabernae, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Grandavia, 9 miles;

change at Trejectum, 9 miles;

rest-stop at Hiscampis, 9 miles;

change at the Fifth, six miles;

rest-stop at Coladiana, 15 miles;

rest-stop at Marusium, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Absos, 14 miles;

change at Stephanaphana, 12 miles;

city of Appollonia, 18 miles;

change at Stephana, 12 miles;

rest-stop at Aulon Trejectum, 12 miles.

The whole sum from Heracles through Macedonia to Aulon is 688 miles, 58 changes, 25 rest-stops.

Cross the sea, 1000 stadia, which makes 100 miles, and you come to Hydrontum, a rest-stop a mile further.

Change at the Twelfth, 13 miles;

rest-stop at Clipea, 12 miles;

change at Valence, 13 miles;

city of Brindisi, 11 miles;

rest-stop at Spilenaes, 14 miles;

change at the Tenth, 11 miles;

city of Leonatia, 10 miles;

change at Aurelian Towers, 15 miles;

change at Julian Towers, 9 miles;

city of Beroes, 11 miles;

change at Butontones, 11 miles;

city of Rubos, 11 miles;

change at the Fifteenth, 15 miles;

city of Canusium, 15 miles;

change at the Eleventh, 11 miles;

city of Serdo, 15 miles;

city of Aeca, 17 miles;

city of Aquilonis, 10 miles.

Border of Apuleia and Campania.

Rest-stop at the Great Horse, 8 miles;

change at the village of New Fornum, 12 miles;

city of Beneventum, 10 miles;

city and rest-stop at Claudii, 12 miles;

change at the Ninth, 9 miles;

city of Capua, 12 miles.

The whole from Aulon to Capua it's 289 miles, 25 changes, 13 rest-stops.

Change at the Eighth, 8 miles;

change at Campanum Bridge, 9 miles;

city of Sonvessa, 9 miles;

city of Menturnae, 9 miles;

city of Formae, 9 miles;

city of Fundae, 12 miles;

city of Terracina, 13 miles;

change at the Midlands, 10 miles;

change at the Appian Forum, 9 miles;

change at Sponsae, 7 miles;

city of Aricia and Albona, 13 miles;

change at Nonus, 7 miles;

into the City of Rome, 8 miles.

From Capua until the City of Rome it's 136 miles, 13 changes, 9 rest-stops.

From Heraclea through Aulon into the City of Rome is 1113 miles, 117 changes, 46 rest-stops.

To the city of Milan:

Change at Rubrae, 9 miles;

change at Twentieth, 11 miles;

change at Living Water, 12 miles;

city of Ucriculum, 12 miles;

city of Narnia, 12 miles;

city of Interamna, 9 miles;

change at Three Taverns, 3 miles;

change at The Fugitive's Sanctuary, 10 miles;

city of Spolito, 7 miles;

change at Sacraria, 8 miles;

city of Trevi, 4 miles;

city of Fulginae, 5 miles;

city of the Flaminian Forum, 3 miles;

city of Noceria, 12 miles;

city of Ptania, 8 miles;

rest-stop at Herellonum, 7 miles;

change at Hesis, 10 miles;

change at Calae, 14 miles;

change at Intercisa, 9 miles;

city of Sempronian Forum, 9 miles;

change at the Eighth, 9 miles;

city of Fortune's Sanctuary, 8 miles;

city of Pisauro, 8 miles;

city of Ariminum, 24 miles.

From Rome until Ariminum it's 224 miles, 24 changes, 14 rest-stops.

Change at Competus, 12 miles;

city of Cesena, 6 miles;

city of the People's Forum, 6 miles;

city of the Livian Forum, 6 miles;

city of Faventia, 5 miles;

city of the Cornelian Forum, 10 miles;

city of Claternum, 13 miles;

city of Bononia, 10 miles;

change at the Midlands, 15 miles;

change at Victoriolae, 10 miles;

city of Mutena, 3 miles;

change at Secian Bridge, 5 miles;

city of Regium, 8 miles;

change at Cannetum, 10 miles;

city of Parma, 8 miles;

change at Tarum, 7 miles;

rest-stop at Fidentia, 8 miles;

change at Fonteclos, 8 miles;

city of Piacenza, 13 miles;

change at Wheels, 11 miles;

change at Three Taverns, 5 miles;

city of Laudes, 13 miles;

change at the Ninth, 7 miles;

city of Milan, 7 miles.

The entire total from the City of Rome to Milan is 416 miles, 44 changes, 24 rest-stops.

End of itinerary.

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